Vascular Loop-Syndrom re.

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Vestibular paroxysmia:

The most common accompanying symptom was unsteadiness of stance or gait (75%)


Studie: N. trigeminus

Kontakt zur Austrittsstelle der Radix trigeminale hat höhere  Spezifität.

Clinical Article

Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve is a frequent finding in asymptomatic individuals: 3-T MR imaging of 200 trigeminal nerves using 3D CISS sequences

Selçuk Peker, Alp Dinçer and M. Necmettin Pamir



The aim of this study was to assess whether individuals without symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia exhibit vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve. This was investigated using ultra-high-field MR imaging.


One hundred subjects were imaged using a 3-T magnet and high-spatial-resolution three-dimensional (3D) MR imaging with 3D constructive interference in steady-state sequences.


Neurovascular compression (NVC) was detected in 92 of the individuals, with 83 cases bilateral and 9 unilateral. In total, 175 (87.5%) of the 200 nerves examined showed NVC. In 58% of the affected individuals, the vessel was compressing a site in the proximal third of the trigeminal nerve. Eighty-six percent of the compressing vessels were arteries, and 14% were veins.


Ours is the first study to have evaluated NVC of the trigeminal nerve in asymptomatic individuals using 3-T MR imaging. The high prevalence of compression we observed is close to rates of NVC that have been documented in large series of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Our findings strongly suggest that vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve is not necessarily pathological.

Keywords  Constructive interference in steady state – Magnetic resonance imaging – Microvascular decompression – Neurovascular compression – Trigeminal neuralgia


Background.Few publications on primary Trigeminal Neuralgia treated by Micro-Vascular Decompression (MVD) report large series, with long-term follow-up, using Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analysis. None was specifically directed to the comparative study of MVD effectiveness on Trigeminal Neuralgia with typical (i.e., with paroxysmal pain only) and atypical features (i.e., with association of a permanent background of pain).

Method. The authors report a series of 362 patients having clearcut vascular compression and treated with pure MVD – i.e., without any additional cut or coagulation of the adjacent root fibers. Follow-up was 1 to 18 y (8 y on average, with a median of 7.2 y). Results were considered overall, then separately for patients with typical (237 (65.5%)) and atypical (125 (34.5%)) clinical presentation.
Findings. One year after operation, (294 (81.2%) of patients were totally-free – of paroxysmal pain, and also of permanent background pain – and not needing any medication) 13 (3.6%) still had a background of pain but without the need for medication which 55 patients (15.2%), treatment had failed. At latest review (8 y on average) the corresponding rates were 80, 4.9 and 15.1%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the probability of total cure at 15 y to be 73.4%.
There was no difference in the cure rate between patients with typical and atypical features at one year: 81 and 81.16%, respectively. The probability of cure at 15 y was identical for the two clinical presentations.
Conclusions. Pure MVD offers patients affected by Trigeminal Neuralgia due to vascular compression a long-lasting cure in three-fourths of the cases. Both typical and atypical presentations respond well to MVD, view in contrast to the classical view that an atypical presentation has an adverse effect on outcome after surgery.

Keywords: Trigeminal neuralgia; neuro-vascular compression; micro-vascular decompression; long-term results; Kaplan-Meier analysis.


Background. The Micro-Vascular Decompression (MVD) procedure – developed for conservative treatment of idiopathic Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) is based on the NeuroVascular Conflict (NVC) theory. Although MVD has become very popular over the last twenty years, its principles and value remain controversial. Detailed anatomical observations during posterior fossa exploration in patients with idiopathic TN may help to understand better the role of NVCs.
Method. In this article, the authors report the anatomical observations made under the operating microscope in a consecutive series of 579 patients suffering from idiopathic TN who were treated by MVD.
Findings. In 19 cases (3.3%) no neuro-vascular conflict was found. In the remaining 560 (96.7%) one or several offending vessel(s) were identified. A superior cerebellar artery alone or in association with other “conflicting” vessel(s) was found in 88% of the patients, an anterior-inferior cerebellar artery (alone or in association) in 25.1%, a vein embedded in the nerve (alone or in association) in 27.6%, the basilar artery (alone or in association) in 3.5%. Of prime importance, several “conflicting” vessels were found in association in 37.8% of the patients. Location of the NVC was in the trigeminal root entry zone in 52.3% of the patients, in the midthird of the nerve in 54.3% and at the exit of the nerve from Meckel cave in 9.8%. The relation of the predominant conflict with the surface of the nerve was supero-medial in 53.9%, supero-lateral in 31.6% and inferior in 14.5%. The degree of severity of the main conflict was a simple contact with the nerve in 17.6%, a distorsion of the nerve in 49.2% and a marked indentation in 33.2%.
Alteration of the whole trigeminal nerve was frequently observed. In 42% of patients, the nerve had a significant degree of global atrophy. In 18.2%, there was a local thickening of arachnoid membranes, adherent to the nerve. In 12.6%, the root had a marked angulation on crossing over the petrous ridge. Finally in 3.9%, the nerve was compressed between pons and petrous bone, due to the small size of the posterior fossa.
Interpretation. It is concluded that NVC in this series played an important role as a causative factor of the neuralgia, as classical; but other – possibly responsible – anatomical factors were found, especially a global atrophy of the root, a focal arachnoid thickening, a ribbon-shaped and angulated root on crossing over the petrous ridge . . .

Keywords: Trigeminal neuralgia; neuro-vascular conflicts; micro-vascular decompression; anatomical findings.

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